The Peach State is a fantastic place to do business. It features a low corporate tax rate (the 6th lowest in the nation), plus the 2nd fastest rate of startup growth in the United States. Plus, it’s a beautiful place to live, making it easier to attract talented employees.
There are more than 1.1 million small businesses in Georgia, which accounts for 99.6% of businesses in the state. And small businesses in the state carry a lot of economic heft, employing more than 43% of all employees in the state of Georgia.
Are you looking to join the ranks of Georgia entrepreneurs with your own GA small business? This guide will show you how to start a business in Georgia, from start to finish.
Decide on a business idea
First and foremost, you’ll need to decide what kind of business you want to start. Chances are you already have something in mind, but if not, here are some things to consider:
- What are you talented or naturally skilled at? Could this talent make you well suited to a certain type of business?
- What business does your community need? Have you talked to people to find out?
- What are you interested in? Can you combine any of your passions with a business idea?
- Is this going to be a full time business, or more of a side hustle?
These are questions to ask yourself when deciding on a business idea. Once you have decided, move on to the next step.
Plan your Georgia business
Now it’s time to start planning. This means coming up with a business plan, naming your business, researching locations, and more. There’s a lot to cover here, so let’s break it down:
Select a business name
Selecting a name for your new business is an important first step. You will want to brainstorm and find a name that is relevant to your business, and ideally one that is memorable for your customers.
Choosing a “good” name is not the only consideration, however. The name must also meet certain criteria set out by the state. One of the most important rules is that the name must be unique/distinguishable from all other businesses of that type registered in Georgia.
In other words, if you register an LLC, its name must be unique from all LLCs registered in Georgia. If you register a corporation, its name must be unique from all GA corporations. You can do an online business name search to see if a name is available or not.
There are various rules to comply with, including:
- The name must be unique from other businesses already registered in the state
- LLC names need to contain “limited liability company”, or approved abbreviations like “LLC” or “L.L.C.”
- Corporation names need to contain “corporation”, or approved abbreviations like “corp” or “inc”
- Certain financial words and phrases are restricted, and additional written permission must be obtained in order to use them. This includes financial terms like “bank” and “trust”
- Other rules apply. See the Georgia business name rules for details
When you have selected a name, you can move on to the next step.
Alternatively, if you’re not quite ready to move on, you can reserve the business name by paying a $25 filing fee. This reserves the name for a period of 30 days (which can be extended by re-filing and paying the $25 fee again).
Georgia trade names
Georgia does allow for the use of “trade names”, otherwise known as Doing Business As (DBA) names. Once your business is registered, you can register additional trade names, which you can then legally do business under. Learn more about trade names in Georgia here.
In Georgia, trade names are handled on the county or city level. There are no statewide requirements, but you’ll need to check with local city/county clerks to register a trade name.
Register a domain name
Once you choose a name, you should immediately register a domain name for your new business. In most cases, getting a .com domain name is ideal, but there are many other extensions (.biz, .net, etc.) that are worth considering.
You can use a tool like Namechk to search for an available domain name and find a great deal on the registration cost. You may find that your desired names are taken, so you may need to get creative.
Complete market research
Once you have an idea, you’ll want to do some market research. You want to gain a better understanding of who your customers – and competitors – are. You can achieve this by conducting online research, running focus groups, sending out surveys, and more. There are also companies that can help you complete market research, for a fee.
Select a business location
Unless you plan to run a remote/virtual business, you will need to find a physical location for your company. Research commercial property in your area, and take note of typical costs. For customer-facing businesses (retail and some services), location is very important, so take your time in selecting the right area for your business.
Create a business plan
You will now need to create a detailed business plan for your new venture. This plan is helpful for your own purposes, and will also be necessary in order to obtain funding from a bank. A good business plan should contain these elements:
- Finances: How much funding does the business need to get started? How many sales does it need each month to break even on expenses?
- Product: What do you plan to sell? Is it a product or a service? What problem does your business solve, and how is it distinct from your competitors?
- Marketing: How will you drive sales? What marketing and sales efforts do you plan to employ? How much money will you set aside to fund marketing efforts?
- Staff & Partnerships: How many people will you need to hire, and what skill sets do they need to have? Will you have any partnerships or arrangements with other local businesses?
If you need help, you can find business plan templates online that will help walk you through the steps you need to take to draft a detailed business plan. If you plan to seek funding, you may also wish to call your bank to see what they require in terms of business plans.
Decide on a business structure
Before you form your business as a legal entity, you will need to decide which business structure you will use. There are a few different types of businesses, each with its own pros and cons.
Sole props are single-person operations. Examples include freelancers, gig economy workers and consultants. A sole proprietorship business is very easy and inexpensive to form, and tax reporting is also fairly simple. As a sole proprietor, your business taxes are reported as part of your personal tax return.
The downsides to a sole prop are that you cannot hire employees, and you don’t have the legal liability shield that something like an LLC or corporation would provide. 100% of the debts and liability of a sole proprietorship go to the sole owner: you.
A general partnership is an unincorporated business structure similar to a sole proprietorship, except with two active owners/participants. Partnerships do not have liability protection.
Limited Liability Company (LLC)
A limited liability company, or LLC, is a popular choice for business owners because it provides liability protection to the owners. It separates the business from the owners, which means the personal assets of owners will not be at risk if the company gets sued or goes into bankruptcy.
LLCs are also a bit easier to form than corporations. Even so, there is definitely more work involved with an LLC than there is with a sole proprietorship.
A corporation is owned by its shareholders and is a separate entity. There are a few different types of corporations (C-corp, S-corp, etc), with the main differences being the way they are treated tax-wise.
Corporations are more regulated than LLCs, which makes them more attractive to outside investors. For this reason, most large companies are corporations. The downside is that it takes more effort, and more paperwork, to form a corporation.
A nonprofit is a legal entity that is set up with charitable status, meaning that its goal is not to make a profit, but rather to address a certain cause. Nonprofits are funded by donations, rather than investors, and are subject to many regulations. They are exempt from most forms of taxation, although tax returns must still be filed.
Register your business in Georgia
Next, you will need to actually register your new business with the state of Georgia. You will need to work with the Georgia Secretary of State’s office to file some documents and get your business formed. The process can be done online or through the mail.
There are two ways to go about this process:
- Doing the work yourself (see the steps below)
- Using a professional business formation service
If you opt to use a service, you’ll pay a bit extra, but the service will save you both time and hassle. Companies like Northwest Registered Agent, ZenBusiness, and Incfile are all good options. These services help with each step of the process, walking you through what you need to do to start a GA business.
If you choose not to use a service, the broad steps include:
- Choosing a name for your business
- Choosing a Registered Agent for your business. This agent is responsible for receiving legal documents and correspondence for your company
- Filing formation documents with Georgia’s Secretary of State department
- Applying for an Employer Identification Number (EIN) from the Internal Revenue Service (IRS)
- Applying for other necessary permits or licenses
The specific steps you’ll need to take depend on what type of business you are opening (LLC, corporation, etc.) Find details on each business structure below.
Form a Georgia sole proprietorship
Follow these steps:
- Decide if you will operate under your legal name, or use a trade name
- If you use a name other than your own, you will need to register a trade name
- Register for a sole proprietorship with the Georgia Tax Center
- Apply for a business license and/or other necessary permits from local governments (city/county)
- Find more information on how to register a GA sole prop here
Form a Georgia LLC
Follow these steps:
- Name your LLC (follow the Georgia LLC naming rules)
- Choose a Georgia Registered Agent (or use a service such as Northwest Registered Agent)
- File the LLC Articles of Organization online, and pay the $100 filing fee. The form can also be filed by mail (by mail requires the submission of an additional transmittal information form)
- Draft an LLC operating agreement
- Apply for an EIN with the IRS
Form a Georgia corporation
Follow these steps:
- Decide on your desired corporate tax structure (S corp or C corp)
- Name your new corporation (follow the Georgia corporation naming rules)
- Hold an organizational meeting and appoint directors
- File the Georgia Articles of Incorporation online, and pay the $100 filing fee. This form can also be filed by mail, although the filing fee is $110 for hard copy filings
- Apply for an EIN from the IRS
Apply for business licenses and permits
Registering your business and forming an LLC or corporation is an important part of starting your business – but in order to operate legally, you will likely also need to obtain certain permits and/or business licenses.
The specifics vary depending on the type of business you are running, as well as your location. For example, restaurants will need health permits, bars will need liquor licenses, and medical service providers will need various professional licenses and federal permits. You will need to research the specifics that relate to your business type.
There are different requirements at each level of government:
- Local: Cities and counties may require certain business licenses or permits. Contact your county clerk for details.
- State: Georgia may require certain permits or licenses. Check the Georgia Department of Revenue website and local city/county government websites for details.
- Federal: Federal permits/licenses may be required for certain regulated industries, such as construction, medicine and legal services. Check the Small Business Administration (SBA) guide for more details.
At this time, you should also apply for an Employer Identification Number (EIN). An EIN is a federal tax ID that is required to hire employees. You can apply for an EIN online with the IRS – the application is free and quick.
For most businesses, some startup funding will be necessary in order to get started. In step #2, you should have calculated your funding needs while drafting a business plan. Use this information to determine how much funding you need to raise.
For bootstrapped companies, you may be able to get by with your own personal savings, or some seed investments from friends and family. If your funding needs are small, this is likely your best route.
If your business plan indicates that substantial funding is needed, you will likely need to apply for a loan and/or a grant.
- Small business loans are offered by banks, credit unions and other lenders. They can range from as little as a few thousand to hundreds of thousands. Specifics will depend on your business, as well as your personal creditworthiness. Most small business loans are issued in a lump sum, and paid back on a monthly basis, with interest.
- Small business grants are offered by government agencies and some nonprofits. They are essentially business loans that don’t need to be paid back – but they usually have substantial fine print. It’s worth looking into, however, as there may be grants available, particularly for businesses serving an important social need, or for underprivileged entrepreneurs starting their first business.
Set up your business finances
Beyond securing funding, there are other routine tasks that you need to take care of to get your business’ finances in order. This includes:
- Opening a business checking account. You should have a separate business bank account that you use solely for business purposes. You can open this account at most banks, credit unions and financial institutions. Call ahead to see what documents will be required to open this account.
- Open a business credit card or line of credit. This is not strictly necessary, but most businesses can benefit from having a business credit card, and/or a business line of credit. This can be used for day-to-day expenses and purchases, and may also earn you some rewards.
- Set up your accounting system. As a business owner, you will need to keep very detailed records about all revenue and expenses. To do this, you’ll want to set up the proper foundation from day one. This could be investing in an account software such as QuickBooks or Xero, hiring a bookkeeper, or at the very least establishing a spreadsheet to track everything. If you do not have any accounting experience, it’s wise to hire a professional to help.
- Purchase business insurance. Most businesses should have some form of liability insurance, and potentially other forms of business insurance as well. Insurance policies can help protect your equipment and buildings from costly damage, and help shield your company from liability if a worker or customer is injured or otherwise harmed. Speak with a local business insurance provider to get started.
Create a business website
In this day and age, having a solid web presence for your business is very important. And social media profiles, while important, are no replacement for an actual website. You will want to build a professional business website that you can use to drum up business, inform your customers, and stay connected with your clientele.
The simplest way to build a website is to use a website builder from a web hosting provider. When you register a new domain name, look for a provider that also offers web hosting and a site builder, so that you can purchase everything at once and get your site set up quickly.
Unless you plan to operate a solo business (with you as the only worker), you will likely need to hire employees. To do this, you will need a federal employer identification number (EIN), which is a free tax ID number issued by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS).
Once you have an EIN, you will be able to hire employees. With each new employee, you will need to report the new hire to the Georgia New Hire Reporting Center.
At this point, you also should look into setting up your payroll system – whether you handle it yourself, or use a payroll service.
Run and grow your business
Now it’s time to get down to business and engage with the day-to-day activities that are sure to bring your business success. This means marketing your products and services, maintaining good relationships with your return customers, and setting yourself apart from the competition.
Georgia business FAQs
Still have questions about running a business in Georgia? Here are some answers to frequently asked questions.
What are some business resources in Georgia?
Business owners in Georgia have a variety of resources at their disposal. A great place to start is the Georgia Small Business Development Center (Georgia SBDC). This resource provides free business advisor services, webinars and training, and many other useful resources. Other good resources include the Georgia Chamber of Commerce, the Georgia Department of Economic Development, and the US Small Business Administration (SBA).
What is the minimum wage in Georgia?
The Georgia minimum wage is $5.15 per hour. However, in most cases, the federal minimum wage of $7.25 applies. Outside of a few exceptions, Georgia businesses must pay employees the federal minimum wage of $7.25 per hour.
Keep in mind that individual cities and counties are able to impose their own minimum wage laws. Check with your local city/county governments to ensure that you are compliant with all local laws.
What business taxes does Georgia have?
There are a variety of taxes that GA businesses must pay. Any business that sells taxable goods or services must pay the GA sales tax, and taxable goods that are used or consumed by the business may be subject to use tax.
How do I dissolve an LLC or Corporation in Georgia?
If you end up needing to close your business, you will need to dissolve it. To do this, you must close down all your tax accounts with the state of Georgia, and file any outstanding tax returns. You must also file the Notice of Intent to Dissolve with the state in order to formally close your Georgia company. See this guide from the Georgia Secretary of State for more information.
Closing a business can be complex, so you may wish to hire a certified public accountant (CPA) for help with this process.
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